Evidence Paper: Energy & Environment

Economic development requires sharp increases in the consumption of energy. The reliability and cost of energy is a critical determinant of the competitiveness and growth of small and large businesses, and of the well-being of households. At the same time, the energy required for firms to grow and individuals to prosper creates externalities at the local level and globally. Balancing these two forces is a key challenge for developing countries this century. This IGC evidence paper examines the latest literature to set out a research agenda for the field.